1863, Surrender of Union Army at San Antonio, Harper's Weekly

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18631, "Surrender of Ex-General Twiggs, late of the United States Army, to the Texas Troops in the Gran Plaza, San Antonio, Texas, February 16, 1861."  From Harper's Weekly: A Journal of Civilization." (Image: approximately 14" wide x 10" high).  David Twiggs was born in Richmond County, Georgia, in 1790. He had a distinguished record of military service with the United States including service during the Mexican War. Twiggs was assigned to command the Department of Texas in 1857. He was headquartered in San Antonio. As a southerner, Twiggs believed in States rights. On February 1, 1861, the Texas Secession Convention adopted an ordinance of secession. Commissioners conferred with General Twiggs at San Antonio and demanded the surrender of all arms, stores, and munitions under his control. The Commission determined that if Twiggs refused to surrender the property it would be taken by force. Twiggs faced a dilemma. He had the duty to follow his superior's orders but he could not reconcile this duty with his belief in the absolute right of Texas to secede. On February 15, 1861, Twiggs was relieved of his command and Col. Carlos Waite, a New Yorker and strong Unionist, replaced him. Confederate troops moved on San Antonio and demanded surrender. Col. Waite capitulated. In the meantime, Twiggs was placed under arrest and escorted into San Antonio. Twiggs was requested to surrender all public property under his control. Twiggs refused to allow his troops to be disgraced by a surrender of their arms but surrendered all public property, including all forts in Texas. On March 1, 1861, Twiggs was dismissed from the Union Army by President Buchanan. Ten weeks later he was commissioned as a Major General in the Confederate Army and transferred to New Orleans to command the District of Louisiana. Twiggs retired shortly thereafter and died at age 72 near Augusta, Georgia.



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